Jelly-like atmospheric particles resist chemical aging

first_imgAtmospheric chemists at the Harvard School of Engineering and Applied Sciences (SEAS) have found that when it comes to secondary organic material in the atmosphere, there are two distinct breeds: liquids and jellies.Secondary organic materials (SOM) are airborne particles that have begun to react with gases in the atmosphere. In the past 20 years’ research and climate modeling, these SOM particles have been assumed to drift as liquids. In a liquid phase, the organic materials would absorb other compounds like ammonia or ozone very easily and then progress through a series of chemical changes (known as chemical aging) to form particles that reflect or absorb sunlight, or form clouds.Now, experiments at Harvard, using particles of α-pinene SOM and adipic acid, have shown that a drop in humidity can send these common aerosols into a jelly-like phase, in which they resist chemical aging almost entirely. The findings, published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, may call for a revision of regional and global climate models. Read Full Storylast_img read more

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Niche market

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Premier League 2019-20 opening day fixtures in full: Manchester United start with blockbuster Chelsea clash

first_imgAdvertisement Manchester City retained their Premier League title by pipping Liverpool on the final day of the 2018/19 season (Picture: Getty)Manchester City will begin their attempt to win a third successive Premier League title against West Ham.Pep Guardiola’s side swept all before them on the domestic front last season, completing a unique treble, but were pushed all the way in the league by a Liverpool side who finished runners-up by a solitary point having amassed 97 points.Jurgen Klopp’s Champions League winners will kick-off their campaign against Norwich, while Chelsea face the daunting prospect of an opening weekend trip to Old Trafford where they will face Manchester United.Arsenal begin against Newcastle, while north London rivals Tottenham are scheduled to meet newly promoted Aston Villa.AdvertisementAdvertisementADVERTISEMENTMore: FootballRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starChelsea defender Fikayo Tomori reveals why he made U-turn over transfer deadline day moveMikel Arteta rates Thomas Partey’s chances of making his Arsenal debut vs Man City More: Manchester United FCRio Ferdinand urges Ole Gunnar Solskjaer to drop Manchester United starNew Manchester United signing Facundo Pellistri responds to Edinson Cavani praiseEx-Man Utd coach blasts Ed Woodward for two key transfer errors Comment Premier League Opening Day Fixtures: 2019/20 09/08/2019 20:00 Liverpool v Norwich City10/08/2019 12:30 West Ham United v Manchester City10/08/2019 15:00 A.F.C. Bournemouth v Sheffield United10/08/2019 15:00 Burnley v Southampton10/08/2019 15:00 Crystal Palace v Everton10/08/2019 15:00 Leicester City v Wolverhampton10/08/2019 15:00 Watford v Brighton10/08/2019 17:30 Tottenham Hotspur v Aston Villa11/08/2019 14:00 Newcastle United v Arsenal11/08/2019 16:30 Manchester United v Chelseacenter_img Metro Sport ReporterThursday 13 Jun 2019 9:06 amShare this article via facebookShare this article via twitterShare this article via messengerShare this with Share this article via emailShare this article via flipboardCopy link50Shares Premier League 2019-20 opening day fixtures in full: Manchester United start with blockbuster Chelsea clash Advertisementlast_img read more

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